A month-long, job-readiness training program for school-work transition


Authors

J. Christian Banez, BS. CHES, Truman State University, Kirkville, MO, USA

Darson Rhodes, PhD, MCHES, The College at Brockport, Brockport, NY, USA

Joseph Visker, PhD, MCHES, Minnesota State University-Mankato, Mankato, MN, USA

Karl Larson, PhD, MCHES, Gustavus-Adolphus University, St. Peter, MN, USA

Carolyn Cox, PhD, MCHES, Truman State University, Kirkville, MO, USA

Corresponding Author

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to

Email: Dr. Carolyn Cox

Abstract

Students with disabilities encounter a multitude of difficulties as they transition from school to the workforce. The purpose of this project was to asses change in self-reported job-readiness of youth with intellectual disabilities participating in a month-long, half-day, job-readiness training program in a Midwest US state. Twenty-nine high school (paid work) and middle school-aged students (service-oriented volunteer positions) with intellectual disabilities participated in the summer, community-based, job-readiness training program exploring school-work transition. The program also included a one-day transition-planning event to teach self-determination skills to participants. Participants completed a brief job readiness survey before and after program participation. Participant self-reporting showed significant (p<.05) improvement in only the curiosity subscale by the service-oriented volunteer position participants. The results show minimal evidence that the described month-long program promoted self-reported job-readiness among participants. Possibly, the very brief nature of the job readiness training program exposure was not enough to make significant improvements as described in previous literature.

Keywords: intellectual disabilities; school-to-work transition; job readiness; job maturity

Introduction

Students with disabilities encounter a multitude of difficulties as they transition from school to the workforce (Federal Partners in Transition Workgroup, 2015). Post-secondary young adults with disabilities in the US, for example, are employed at lower rates, stay in their jobs for a shorter time, and make lower wages than their non-disabled peers (Newman et al., 2011). Possibly, students with disabilities have a diminished role in their transition planning from high school, and as such, finish school with greater employment needs than non-disabled students (Gragoudas, 2014). Students who experience greater success in transition (i.e. more likely to establish employment after graduation) are more likely to have participated in some form of transition programming (Glynn & Schaller, 2017; Kaya et al., 2016). Kaya et al (2016) specifically identify the importance of job readiness training and on-the-job support. Levinson and Palmer (2005) also state the importance of student involvement in the planning process. This involvement increases self-determination and goal setting ability, and it increases their own knowledge of their academic, social, daily living, and occupational assets. Participation in transition programs also had an impact in the workplace. A 2015 study by Gormley noted improvements in the way employees with intellectual disabilities were perceived by their co-workers, with reductions in stigma related to acceptance in the workplace.

Participation in transition programs has been shown to improve entry-level job skills and success-oriented workplace behaviors (Müller & VanGilder, 2014) on the path to competitive integrated employment (Fleming et al., 2019). In a meta-analysis of correlational literature, positive relationships were demonstrated between employment outcomes and vocational rehabilitation, coordinated transition services, paid work experiences, and student-focused transition planning for students with disabilities (Haber et al., 2016). Particularly for students with intellectual disabilities, the length of time spent in job-related training during school-time and community-based on-the-job-training were moderate positive predictors of future integrated employment. Although evidence is still limited, transition success may depend on level of community integration of the student (Smith et al., 2017). Variety of these types of vocational rehabilitation and transition planning programs exist to prepare transition-aged students for competitive employment that range from year-long internships to short-term, modular, work-readiness curricula. One such long-term program is Project SEARCH (PS), a transitional support program for individuals with intellectual disabilities. PS provides students with disabilities training in social and job skills, communication skills, and goal setting, and exposes students to a series of supported internships through collaborative efforts of school and adult services programs (Wehman et al., 2013). Schall, et al (2015) reviewed the impact on those participating in the PS program and found them more likely to gain employment after school, have benefits, and secure a higher hourly wage than their disabled peers. A second program is the Soft Skills program. The six-module curriculum emphasizes communication, attitude, teamwork, networking, problem solving, and professionalism for students with disabilities (US Department of Labor, n.d.). Summer supported, community-based work experiences, too, either paid or unpaid, can benefit youth with disabilities by providing not only job skills training but also career interest exploration and the opportunity to use social and customer service skills (Carter et al., 2010).

Aim and objectives of the current study

Community-based agencies provide community supports, employment services, and school-to-work transition services to clients and students with disabilities. One such employment service coordination agency receives client referrals from state and county agencies and delivers career development, employment, community living, and transition supports to people with disabilities in its service area. Similar to most other work-based learning programs for students and young adults with disabilities (US Department of Labor/Office of Disability Employment Policy, n.d.), a month-long job-readiness training program (paid work and service-oriented volunteer positions) including a one-day transition-planning event was held by the agency for secondary school-aged youth with low-moderate intellectual functioning. Job readiness skills assist employees in interacting with supervisors and other employees at the worksite. The purpose of this project, using a pre-post, one group design, was to assess change in self-reported job-readiness of youth with intellectual disabilities participating in a month-long, job-readiness training program.

Method

Participants

Institutional Review Board approval and agency administration (Executive Director and Director of Employment and Community Services) consent, parental/guardian consent, and participant consent/assent were granted for the study. Fourteen high school-aged youth and young adults [paid work] as well as 15 middle school-aged youth [service-oriented volunteer positions] (program numbers capped for manageability) with intellectual disabilities affecting mental processes were asked to be included in the study. The high school-aged youth and young adults met the US minimum age for employment and could be payed as employees. The middle school-aged youth were not eligible, by age, for paid employment but participated in service-oriented volunteer activities. To be eligible for the month-long job-readiness training program located in a rural county of a Midwestern US state that included a standardized work-related skills curriculum and transition-planning event, youth must be between the ages of 11-21. A medical or mental health care professional must also provide written evidence of their low-moderate intellectual functioning, deficits in one or more of the following adaptive behaviors: living, communication, and social skills, as well as a disability that impairs daily life activities leading to difficulties in employability. All completed the consent form/assent and participated in the study. In the work program, there were 10 females, four males, all between the ages of 16-19, and all were Caucasian. In the volunteer program, there were five females, 10 males, all were between the ages of 13-15, and all were Caucasian.

Instrument

The Career Maturity Inventory- Form C [CMI] (Savickas & Porfeli, 2011) was used by participants to self-assess career readiness pre-post program. A valid measure of career choice readiness, the survey has been previously used with youth with learning disabilities (Dipeolu, 2007). Chosen for its brevity and simplicity, the survey possesses 24 agree/disagree items yielding a total score and sub-scale scores (Adaptability, Curiosity, Confidence, Relational style”) (Savickas & Porfeli, 2011). Higher scores reflect higher job readiness.

Procedure

Agency administrators (Executive Director and Director of Employment and Community Services), after resume review and job interviews, hired nine job mentors for the program as part-time, seasonal employees. All nine were female, between the ages of 21-25, and college students studying education or special education. At a pre-program organizational meeting for job mentor orientation and training, one adult job mentor was assigned to a group of three-four participants to accompany and support them on the jobsite for their paid work or service-oriented volunteer days. In addition to job mentor training, all job mentors were trained in pre-post program administration to the participants of the CMI survey including the assent form. To insure confidentiality, no names were recorded, and code numbers were used on the instruments for all participants.

Before the first week of the program and after the last week of the program, job mentors administered the pre-post CMI, respectively, to all participants in a classroom setting during all-program meetings. Job mentors provided any supports needed to the participants in completing their surveys including reading the questions, assistance with marking answer placement, and allowing breaks as needed in between answering questions. Surveys were collected and placed in a sealed envelope and given to the researcher.

Paid work participants were matched to jobs that met their work preferences and interests. They worked in small groups for four hours each day for four days each week at one of several job sites under the supervision and with support of the job mentor. Participants met their job mentor at the agency and were transported to their job site. Participants worked for two hours in the morning, took a half hour break for lunch, worked two hours in the afternoon, and were transported back to the agency. The job sites included a nursing home (three participants worked there), school (six participants worked there), produce factory (three participants worked there), and clothing store (two participants worked there). Job tasks at all of these sites included general cleaning and upkeep work (dust, mop/wash, sweep, trash/recycling), packing products, and shelf-stocking.

Service-oriented volunteer position participants also worked in small groups for four hours each day for four days each week at one of several volunteer sites that matched their preferences and interests under the supervision and with support of the job mentor. These sites included volunteering at an animal shelter (three participants volunteered there), cleaning up parks (six participants volunteered there), cleaning a school (four participants volunteered there), and observing employees at a grocery store (two participants volunteered there). Service-oriented volunteer tasks at these sites included general cleaning and upkeep work and observation of staff who worked at those sites. All paid work and service-oriented volunteer position participants were also expected to practice soft/social skills at their job sites.

One day each week for three weeks, all paid work and service-oriented volunteer participants attended a day-long, large-group, standardized work-related social skills curriculum in the classroom setting. Agency administrators taught two lessons each class meeting [Meeting 1: Communication/Enthusiasm & Attitude, Meeting 2: Teamwork/Networking, Meeting 3: Problem-solving/Professionalism] of the modular curriculum called Skills to Pay the Bills (US Department of Labor, n.d.). The curriculum used active learning activities to teach important workplace skills including: communication and listening, positive workplace attitude, teamwork behavior, networking, decision-making, and professionalism. The workforce readiness skills covered in the modules prepared participants to converse with supervisors, coworkers, and clients. The curriculum also focused on development of critical thinking, workplace problem-solving, working in teams with coworkers, dealing with disgruntled customers, and time management. In preparation for the future, the curriculum also covered topics in networking for career advancement by providing information on how to make professional connections and maintain professional relationships (US Department of Labor, n.d.).

For the fourth week’s classroom session, a one-day, school-to-work transition planning and self-determination event was held. Taught by agency administration, the event included sessions, games, and activities to help participants create goals for future employment. Participants socialized and networked as they attended workshops on effective communication, empowerment at the workplace, self-confidence, and self-esteem building. The culminating activity was a role play/talent show demonstrating the skills learned.

Results

Means and standard deviations were computed for sub-scale and total survey scores for the CMI, and paired samples t-tests were used to assess significant changes between pre- and post-surveys. Mean scores between the two stakeholder groups (paid work/service-oriented volunteer position) were also compared.

At least half of the service-oriented volunteer participants responded favorably to eight items on the CMI. On the Post-CMI, at least half of the service-oriented volunteer participants responded favorably to 10 items. Specifically, less service-oriented volunteer participants agreed post-program than pre-program that they “can’t seem to become very concerned about their future occupation”, “seldom thought about the job they wanted to enter”, and “kept changing their occupational choice”. Interestingly, more service-oriented volunteer participants agreed post-program than pre-program that they “didn’t know how to go about getting into the kinds of work they wanted to do” and “were having difficulty in preparing themselves for they work they want to do”. More also agreed post-program than pre-program that they “can’t find any work that has much appeal to them” (Savickas & Porfeli, 2011). Conversely, at least half of the paid work participants responded favorably to most items on the Pre-CMI. On the post-survey, at least half of these participants responded favorably to 20 items. Similar to the responses of the service-oriented volunteer participants, more paid work participants became “concerned with their future occupations” pre- to post-program. From pre- to post-program, however, more paid work participants agreed that they “knew how to go about getting into the kind of work they want to do”. In addition, from pre- to post-program, more paid work participants knew “whether their occupational plans were realistic” and that they “could find work that was appealing to them” (Savickas & Porfeli, 2011). See Table 1: Career Maturity Inventory Pre- and Post-Frequencies of All Items for Volunteer and Work Program Groups. Table 1.

Of the five, paired samples t-tests computed for the service-oriented volunteer participants, a statistically significant difference was found in one of them. When comparing the pre- and post “curiosity” (Savickas & Porfeli, 2011) subscales, the post-curiosity scores (M = 1.94, SD = 1.44) were significantly lower than the pre-curiosity scores (M = 3.06, SD = 1.53) in this group, t(15) = 2.33, p = 0.034. Of the five, paired samples t-tests computed for the paid work participants, there were no statistically significant differences between pre- and post-scores. See Table 2: Career Maturity Inventory Pre- and Post-Scores for Volunteer and Work Program Groups. Table 2.

Discussion

An employment service coordination agency provided a month-long job-readiness training program for high school and middle-school-aged youth with intellectual disabilities during the summer. Job readiness skills assist employees in interacting with supervisors and other employees at the worksite. The program provided participants a chance to obtain on-the-job work experience in either a paid part-time position (high school-aged) or service-oriented volunteer position (middle-school-aged). The program also provided an opportunity for student participation in a transition- planning event, workplace supports through job mentors, and classroom-based instruction in soft/personal skills in order to improve transition success. Minimal evidence was found, though, that the program promoted self-reported job-readiness among participants. Job readiness is an important part of school-to-work transition, critical to life and employment success. Job readiness skills and behaviors such as self-determination and self-advocacy assist with career choice confidence. Employers expect employees to demonstrate good interpersonal and communication skills when interacting with customers, supervisors, or co-workers, no matter the job.

From pre- to post-program, more service-oriented volunteer participants as well as paid work participants reported seriously thinking about their future careers. Their exposure to work by watching others be valued for their skills, helping as a volunteer or paid employee, and being valued for that assistance may have contributed to increasing their perception of the value and importance of a future career. More service-oriented volunteer participants between pre- and post-program became unsure, though, about how to prepare for such careers and did not seem to find any work that appealed to them. On the other hand, from pre- to post-program, more paid work participants reported knowing how to prepare for their careers and that their occupational plans were realistic. This is to be expected at each developmental level as participants gain more paid work experience as well as self-determination, vocational, and social skills and by the use of a person-centered approach to the job placements. Younger service-oriented volunteer participants will eventually move from career awareness and job readiness training to supported, paid employment as they become older and progress through the program.

Results from the CMI for paid work participants failed to show significant improvements in any of the subscales. However, a review of individual items show some evidence of improvement, such as prioritizing or putting more emphasis on future employment, and narrowing interests that may become a future job (Savickas & Porfeli, 2011). The service-oriented volunteer participants, however, significantly decreased in their Curiosity sub-scale scores. Exposure to workplaces and learning from the older participants and agency staff when paid work and service-oriented volunteer participants combined for classroom-based learning and the transition-planning event may have contributed to this improvement. This may provide some support for including student involvement in their own transition planning (Levinson & Palmer, 2005). In addition, an early start with job-readiness training in a natural setting while learning job and social skills seemed to lead to more service-oriented volunteer participants critically analyzing their career preparedness levels between pre-post program. This may be motivating and lead to future goal-setting behaviors as participants become more involved in their transition planning as they grow older. Also, a general review of participant responses showed that the paid work group responded in a more favorable manner than the service-oriented volunteer group to their job readiness training experiences. Because that group was older and closer to school-work transition stage, they may have taken the program more seriously.

The program used in this study was only a month long and challenged the lengthier preparation students with disabilities may face when looking for meaningful work experiences. If positive outcomes and improved job readiness similar to long-term, successful programs like Project SEARCH (Wehman et al., 2013) were shown for such a short-term program; funding, staffing, and business partnership resources could then be saved. Unfortunately, a slight positive effect for only one sub-scale and only for the younger, service-oriented volunteer participants was shown in this study. Possibly, program length, which has been shown to somewhat predict future employment (Smith et al., 2017), may not have been long enough to demonstrate positive effects.

Although the program allowed all to experience and explore jobs that were of interest to them in a safe, supported community-based setting, lack of positive effects could be attributed to a somewhat exclusionary supported employment service delivery approach (Fleming et al., 2019). The program used evidence-based strategies: student interests were identified, and jobs matched using person-centered planning, job supports and job coaches were provided, vocational skills training was delivered, and collaborations were implemented between the agency and employers (Fleming et al., 2019). However, students worked mainly under one employer supervisor and in small, semi-segregated groups under the guidance of one job coach at the worksite. More opportunities for social inclusion and interacting with other employees or typically-developing peers at the job setting is recommended as degree of integration was shown to have some effect on future employment attainment for transition-aged students (Smith et al., 2017). For example, some parts of the transition-planning event or classroom activities could be more inclusive and integrated if coordinated with other community-based employment agencies’ trainings or classroom-based activities.

Although data presented herein shows minimal evidence the described program was successful in promoting self-reported job readiness among participants, multiple limitations may have hindered results. Regarding research design, even with the short time frame between pre-post surveys, participant maturation due to learning and using new job skills may have affected results. This study was also conducted in one geographic region and utilized a relatively small group of individuals chosen specifically because they were involved in a vocational rehabilitation program. It is necessary for the program and subsequent assessments to be repeated to determine true effectiveness. With self-report, even using job mentor assistance, participants may have been confused by some questions, experienced difficulty with introspection, or were not honest in their answers. The addition of observational data or perspectives of the job coach or employer in future studies would lead to more accurate conclusions.

Other aspects of vocational readiness could be explored or assessed in future studies. Lengthening and expanding the program, depending on agency and business resources, may lead to more significant effects. Other recommendations for transition practice include additional collaboration with area schools so that similar programs can continue throughout the school year. Again, the brief nature of the job readiness training program exposure may not have been enough to make significant improvements as described in previous literature (Wehman et al., 2013).

Table 1 Career Maturity Inventory Pre- and Post-Frequencies of All Items for Volunteer and Work Program Groups

Item/Group

Pre-Inventory

Post-Inventory

Agree

Disagree

Agree

Disagree

'There is no point in deciding on a job when the future is so uncertain.'

Volunteer

9

7

7

9

Work

2

12

2

12

'I know very little about the requirements of jobs.'

Volunteer

10

6

9

7

Work

6

8

5

9

'I have so many interests that it is hard to choose just one occupation.'

Volunteer

12

4

10

6

Work

9

5

7

7

'Choosing a job is something that you do on your own.'

Volunteer

12

4

11

5

Work

5

9

5

9

'I can't seem to become very concerned about my future occupation.'

Volunteer

9

7

7

9

Work

5

9

2

12

'I don't know how to go about getting into the kind of work I want to do.'

Volunteer

6

10

11

5

Work

9

5

4

10

'Everyone sees to tell me something different; as a result I don't know what kind of work to choose.'

Volunteer

6

10

9

7

Work

4

10

6

8

'If you have doubts about what you want to do, ask your parents or friends for advice.'

Volunteer

13

3

15

1

Work

8

6

8

6

'I seldom think about the job that I want to enter.'

Volunteer

12

3

8

8

Work

0

14

6

8

'I am having difficulty in preparing myself for the work that I want to do.'

Volunteer

6

10

12

4

Work

2

12

3

11

'I keep changing my occupational choice.'

Volunteer

13

3

8

8

Work

5

9

8

6

'When it comes to choosing a career, I will ask other people to help me.'

Volunteer

12

4

9

7

Work

6

8

10

4

'I’m not going to worry about choosing an occupation until I am out of school.'

Volunteer

11

5

9

7

Work

4

10

8

6

'I don't know what courses I should take in school.'

Volunteer

6

10

9

7

Work

7

7

5

9

'I often daydream about what I want to be, but I really have not chosen an occupation yet.'

Volunteer

10

6

7

9

Work

2

12

9

5

'I will choose my career without paying attention to the feelings of other people.'

Volunteer

9

7

7

9

Work

5

9

8

x

'As far as choosing an occupation is concerned, something will com along sooner or later.'

Volunteer

12

4

13

3

Work

4

10

4

10

'I don’t know whether my occupational plans are realistic.'

Volunteer

9

7

10

6

Work

6

8

3

11

'There are so many things to consider in choosing an occupation, it is hard to make a decision.'

Volunteer

13

3

12

4

Work

8

6

6

8

'It is important to consult close friends and get their ideas before asking an occupational choice.'

Volunteer

15

1

13

3

Work

7

7

9

5

'I really can’t find any work that has much appeal to me.'

Volunteer

9

7

12

4

Work

5

9

3

11

'I keep wondering how I can reconcile the kind of person I am with the kind of person I want to be in my occupation.'

Volunteer

10

6

14

2

Work

6

8

6

8

'I can’t understand how some people can be so certain about what they want to do.'

Volunteer

9

7

8

8

Work

5

9

5

9

'In making career choices, one should pay attention to the thoughts and feelings of family members.'

Volunteer

13

3

13

3

Work

7

7

10

4



Table 2 Career Maturity Inventory Pre- and Post-Scores for Volunteer and Work Program Groups

Subscale/Group

Pre Mean

Pre. StdDev

Post Mean

Post StdDev

t

df

p

"Concern"

Volunteer

2.13

1.31

2.50

1.75

-0.71

15

0.491

Work

4.57

1.02

4.21

1.63

0.73

13

0.477

"Curiosity"

Volunteer

3.06

1.53

1.94

1.44

2.33

15

0.034*

Work

3.43

1.34

4.14

1.29

-1.20

13

0.253

"Confidence"

Volunteer

2.06

1.34

2.63

1.54

-1.32

15

0.208

Work

3.64

1.08

3.07

1.86

1.53

13

0.150

"Consultation"

Volunteer

4.00

1.41

4.19

1.05

-0.55

15

0.594

Work

3.29

1.68

3.71

1.73

-1.15

13

0.272

"Total Score"

Volunteer

11.25

3.24

11.25

4.04

0.00

15

1.000

Work

14.93

3.22

15.14

4.62

-0.17

13

0.871

*p < 0.05

References

Carter, E., Ditchman, N., Sun, Y., Trainor, A., Swedeen, B., & Owens, L. (2010). Summer employment and community experiences of transition-age youth with severe disabilities. Exceptional Children, 76(2), 194-212. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440291007600204

Dipeolu, A. (2007). Career instruments and high school students with learning disabilities: Support for the utility of three vocational measures. Journal of Career Development, 34(1), 59-78. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845307304065

Federal Partners in Transition Workgroup. (2015). The 2020 Federal Youth Transition Plan: A federal interagency strategy. Retrieved from: https://www.dol.gov/odep/pdf/20150302-fpt.pdf

Fleming, C., Martin E., Curtis, R., & Varda, K. (2019). Social role valorization and employment of people with the most significant disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 85(3), 14-21.

Glynn, K., & Schaller, J. (2017). Predictors of employment outcomes for transition-age state-federal vocational rehabilitation consumers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 47(2), 159-174. doi:10.3233/JVR-170892

Gormley, M. E. (2015). Workplace stigma toward employees with intellectual disability: A descriptive study. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 43(3), 249-258. doi:10.3233/JVR-150773.

Gragoudas, S. (2014). Preparing students with disabilities to transition from school to work through self-determination training. Work and Disability 48(3), 407-411. doi: 10.3233/WOR-131782

Haber, M., Mazzotti, V., Mustian, A., Rowe, D., Bartholomew, A., Test, D. & and Fowler. C. (2016). What works, when, for whom, and with whom: A meta-analytic review of predictors of postsecondary success for students with disabilities. Review of Educational Research, 86(1), 123-162. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24752871

Kaya, C., Fong, C., Rumrill, P., Hartman, E., Wehman, P., Kanako, I., & ... Avellone, L. (2016). Vocational rehabilitation services and competitive employment for transition-age youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 45(1), 73-83. doi:10.3233/JVR-160812.

Levinson, E. M. & Palmer, E. J. (2005). Preparing students with disabilities for school-to-work transition and postschool life. Principal Leadership, 5(8), 11–15.

Müller, E., & VanGilder, R. (2014). The relationship between participation in Project SEARCH and job readiness and employment for young adults with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 40(1), 15-26. doi:10.3233/JVR-130660

Newman, L., Wagner, M., Knokey, A. M., Marder, C., Nagle, K., Shaver, D., & Schwarting, M. (2011). The post-high school outcomes of young adults with disabilities up to 8 years after high school: A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). (NCSER 2011-3005). Menlo Park, CAL SRI International.

Savickas, M.L. & Porfeli, E.J. (2011). Revision of the career maturity inventory: The adaptability form. Journal of Career Assessment, 19(4), 355-374. Doi: 10.1177/1069072711409342

Schall, C., Wehman, P., Brooke, V., Graham, C., McDonough, J., Brooke, A., & ... Allen, J. (2015). Employment interventions for individuals with ASD: The relative efficacy of supported employment with or without prior Project SEARCH training. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 45(12), 3990-4001. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2426-5

Shandra, C. L., & Hogan, D. P. (2008). School-to-work program participation and the post-high school employment of young adults with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 29(2), 117-130.

Smith, D., Atmatzidis, K., Capogreco. M., Lloyd-Randolfi, D., & Seman, V. (2017). Evidence-based interventions for increasing work participation for persons with various disabilities: A systematic review. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and

Health, 37(25), 3S–13S.

US Department of Labor. (n.d.). Youth in Transition. Soft Skills to Pay the Bills — Mastering Soft Skills for Workplace Success. Retrieved from: https://www.dol.gov/odep/topics/youth/softskills/softskills.pdf

US Department of Labor, Office of Disability Employment Policy. (n.d.). Youth in Transition - Federal Partners in Transition. Retrieved from: https://www.dol.gov/odep/categories/youth/Federal-Partners-in-Transition2.htm

Wehman, P., Schall, C., McDonough, J., Molinelli, A., Riehle, E., Ham, W., & Thiss, W. R. (2013). Project SEARCH for youth with autism spectrum disorders: Increasing competitive employment on transition from high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(3), 144-155. doi:10.1177/109830071245976

Author Biographical Notes

The authors, from universities in Missouri, New York, and Minnesota, USA are all interested in program evaluation of interventions for supported employment for youth with intellectual disabilities. The practical application of study results to future program modification is an important focus of our research.

 

International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation
Volume 18, No. 1
www.ijdcr.ca
ISSN 1703-3381